Research Article| Volume 77, P34-41, April 2023

Preparing students for clinical placement using 360-video

Published:March 02, 2023DOI:



      The use of virtual reality technologies such as 360-video, can provide innovative and effective adjuncts to traditional simulation activities when teaching nursing students. This paper describes the use of a 360-video to prepare nursing students for an operating room placement.


      This educational project involved a purposive sample of 42 undergraduate nursing students who watched a 360-video orientation to the operating room prior to clinical placement in a tertiary acute care setting. Data were collected regarding their perceptions of the value of the activity in preparing them for the unique and complex setting of the operating room.


      Quantitative and qualitative data analysis identified that students considered this a very positive experience; participants described the learning activity as immersive and valuable for learning while also reducing preplacement stress and anxiety. Participants who attended an actual operating room placement also acknowledged that the video would be useful in preparing them for the experience.


      Technology such as 360-video is a valuable adjunct to traditional simulation activities, it can be used to create learning opportunities that are consistent, reproducible, and accessible outside of the usual classroom setting.


      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      Purchase one-time access:

      Academic & Personal: 24 hour online accessCorporate R&D Professionals: 24 hour online access
      One-time access price info
      • For academic or personal research use, select 'Academic and Personal'
      • For corporate R&D use, select 'Corporate R&D Professionals'


      Subscribe to Clinical Simulation In Nursing
      Already a print subscriber? Claim online access
      Already an online subscriber? Sign in
      Institutional Access: Sign in to ScienceDirect


        • Averlid G.
        • Høglund J.S.
        The operating room as a learning arena: Nurse anaesthetist and student nurse anaesthetist perceptions.
        Journal of Clinical Nursing. 2020; 29: 1673-1683
      1. Bernard, H.R., & Ryan, G.W. (2010). Analyzing Qualitative Data SAGE Publishing

        • Blair C.
        • Walsh C.
        • Best P.
        Immersive 360° videos in health and social care education: a scoping review.
        BMC Medical Education. 2021; 21: 590
        • Borg Sapiano A.
        • Sammut R.
        • Trapani J.
        The effectiveness of virtual simulation in improving student nurses' knowledge and performance during patient deterioration: A pre and post test design.
        Nurse Education Today. 2018; 62: 128-133
        • Chang Y.M.
        • Lai C.L.
        Exploring the experiences of nursing students in using immersive virtual reality to learn nursing skills.
        Nurse Education Today. 2021; 97104670
        • Cobbett S.
        • Snelgrove-Clarke E.
        Virtual versus face-to-face clinical simulation in relation to student knowledge, anxiety, and self-confidence in maternal-newborn nursing: A randomized controlled trial.
        Nurse Education Today. 2016; 45: 179-184
        • de Jong T.
        Cognitive load theory, educational research, and instructional design: Some food for thought.
        Instructional Science. 2010; 38: 105-134
        • del Blanco Á.
        • Torrente J.
        • Fernández-Manjón B.
        • Ruiz P.
        • Giner M.
        Using a videogame to facilitate nursing and medical students' first visit to the operating theatre. A randomized controlled trial.
        Nurse Education Today. 2017; 55: 45-53
      2. Dewey, J. (1938). Experience and Education New York: Touchstione

        • Donnelly F.
        • McLiesh P.
        • Bessell S.A.
        Using 360 degrees video to enable affective learning in nursing education.
        Journal of Nurse Education. 2020; 59: 409-412
        • Doyle K.
        • Hungerford C.
        • Cruickshank M.
        Reviewing Tribunal cases and nurse behaviour: Putting empathy back into nurse education with Bloom's taxonomy.
        Nurse Education Today. 2014; 34: 1069-1073
        • Edwards H.
        • Smith S.
        • Courtney M.
        • Finlayson K.
        • Chapman H.
        The impact of clinical placement location on nursing students' competence and preparedness for practice.
        Nurse Education Today. 2004; 24: 248-255
        • Foronda C.L.
        • Fernandez-Burgos M.
        • Nadeau C.
        • Kelley C.N.
        • Henry M.N.
        Virtual simulation in nursing education: A systematic review spanning 1996 to 2018.
        Simulation Healthcare. 2020; 15: 46-54
        • Giordano N.A.
        • Whitney C.E.
        • Axson S.A.
        • Cassidy K.
        • Rosado E.
        • Hoyt-Brennan A.M.
        A pilot study to compare virtual reality to hybrid simulation for opioid-related overdose and naloxone training.
        Nurse Education Today. 2020; 88104365
        • Herault R.C.
        • Lincke A.
        • Milrad M.
        • Forsgärde E.-S.
        • Elmqvist C.
        Using 360-degrees interactive videos in patient trauma treatment education: Design, development and evaluation aspects.
        Smart Learning Environments. 2018; 5: 26
        • Kim H.Y.
        • Lee J.H.
        • Lee E.H.
        Virtual experience of perioperative patients: Walking in the patients' shoes using virtual reality and blended learning.
        International Journal of Environmental Research Public Health. 2021; 18: 6457
      3. Kramer, M. (1974). Reality shock: why nurses leave nursing: Mosby CV

        • Lewis M.M.
        Cognitive Load, Anxiety, and Performance During a Simulated Subarachnoid Block.
        Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 2019; 36: 30-36
        • Miettinen R.
        The concept of experiential learning and John Dewey's theory of reflective thought and action.
        International Journal of Lifelong Education. 2000; 19: 54-72
        • Moloney M.
        • Murphy L.
        • Kingston L.
        • Markey K.
        • Hennessy T.
        • Meskell P.
        • Doody O.
        Final year undergraduate nursing and midwifery students’ perspectives on simulation-based education: a cross-sectional study.
        BMC Nursing. 2022; 21: 299
        • Park H.R.
        • Park E.
        Nursing students' perception of class immersion facilitators in psychiatric nursing: Team-based learning combined with flipped learning.
        Nurse Education Today. 2021; 98104653
        • Persico L.
        • Belle A.
        • DiGregorio H.
        • Wilson-Keates B.
        • Shelton C.
        Healthcare simulation standards of best practicetm facilitation.
        Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 2021; 58: 22-26
        • Rolfe G.
        Rethinking reflective education: What would Dewey have done?.
        Nurse Education Today. 2014; 34: 1179-1183
        • Snelson C.
        • Hsu Y.-C.
        Educational 360-degree videos in virtual reality: A scoping review of the emerging research.
        TechTrends. 2020; 64: 404-412
        • Thorburn M.
        Embodied experiences: Critical insights from Dewey for contemporary education.
        Educational Research, 2020
        • Tolarba J.E.L.
        Virtual simulation in nursing education: A systematic review.
        International Journal of Nursing Education. 2021; 13: 48-54
        • Watts P.I.
        • Rossler K.
        • Bowler F.
        • Miller C.
        • Charnetski M.
        • Decker S.
        • Hallmark B.
        Onward and upward: Introducing the Healthcare Simulation Standards of Best PracticeTM.
        Clinical Simulation in Nursing. 2021; 58: 1-4
        • Woon A.P.N.
        • Mok W.Q.
        • Chieng Y.J.S.
        • Zhang H.M.
        • Ramos P.
        • Mustadi H.B.
        • Lau Y.
        Effectiveness of virtual reality training in improving knowledge among nursing students: A systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression.
        Nurse Education Today. 2021; 98104655